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Mendocino Limited Groundwater Supply


 arial view of mendocino 

Mendocino Village, located on a Peninsula

The town of Mendocino is located on the Mendocino Headlands along the Pacific Coast in Mendocino County, California. The Mendocino Headlands form a broad peninsula bounded by sea cliffs that range in height from 40 to 100 feet. Elevations along the eastern side of Mendocino increase to about 360 feet. The land slopes westward with a broad gentle ridgeline roughly bisecting the peninsula. The average annual precipitation is about 40 inches. Rain mostly falls from November through March. Precipitation usually declines during the late season and becomes minimal during the summer.

Groundwater is the primary water supply for the town of Mendocino. Groundwater production in Mendocino for everyone is primarily from individual owned wells. Well depths usually range from 40 to 200 feet drilling into fractured bedrock, with flow rates ranging from less than 1 gallon per minute to over 25 gallons per minute. The terrace deposits act as a holding reservoir by storing water that recharges the underlying fractured bedrock. The distribution of the areas of saturated terrace deposits plays a key role in maintaining groundwater levels in the Mendocino Headlands aquifer.

The physical setting is a key factor that influences groundwater flow. Groundwater flows from the highland areas of Mendocino towards the sea cliffs that surround the town where springs flow and trickle to the Pacific Ocean. Spring flow is also highly seasonal with the highest flow rates observed in the late winter and spring following significant rainfall. Unlike most California basins, the major portion of the annual inflow discharges out of the cliffs through springs rather than remaining in storage. With limited groundwater resources in the Mendocino Headlands have led to severe water shortages during the dry summer months for residents with marginal wells. In the past 25 years, several significant droughts have impacted the area.

One of the Many Water Towers in the Village of Mendocino

Most properties have storage tanks or also you will see around the village of Mendocino, water towers from the beginning of the settlement of the village of Mendocino. Some wells during drier years will run dry in the late fall months, and water is trucked in to replenish storage tanks or the water towers. Since 1990 the Mendocino City Community Services District adopted a Groundwater Management Plan with a groundwater withdrawal program, which limits groundwater extraction. The Groundwater Extraction Permit ordinance allows local government to mandate the amount of naturally occurring groundwater that can be withdrawn from the town’s aquifer on a sustained basis to help prevent depletion of the town’s aquifer on a sustained basis to help prevent depletion of the town’s groundwater by not exceeding the aquifer’s perennial or safe yield, which is the amount of water that can be pumped regularly and permanently without dangerous depletion of the storage reserve. 

Mendocino residents are acutely aware of the need for water conservation. The Department of Water Resources noted that Mendocino is already extremely conservative in its water use as compared with other north coast towns, with an estimated use of 70 gallons per day per capita on average. Conservative water use in Mendocino has helped extend existing town water supplies as far as possible. Gardeners are encouraged to cultivate drought tolerant plants. Visitors must be exhaustively reminded that in Mendocino we must conserve even on vacation.

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Pianist Ching Yun Hu Playing in Mendocino



Pianist Ching Yun Hu, Playing February 16, 2014

We would like to welcome back pianist Ching Yun Hu, as she played here two years ago, and we are all so excited that she is returning. She is the 2008 Rubinstein International Piano Master Competition winner. Since her last performance here, she has been all over the world performing and organizing piano competitions. 

Ms. Hu moved at the age of 14 to the United States to continue her music studies at The Julliard School in New York. She studied piano with Herbert Stessin and Oxana Yaldenskaya and chamber music with Joseph Kalichstein and Seymour Lipkin. She also received additional artistic guidance from Richard Goode.

Some recent recital highlights include London’s Wigmore Hall and Southbank Centre, New York’s Weill Recital Hall at Carnegie Hall, Opera House in Tel Aviv, Gulbenkian Foundation in Lisbon, National Concert Hall of Taipei, Washington D.C.’s Kennedy Center, Concertgebouw in Amsterdam, Salle Cartot in Paris, Aspen Musical Festival, Munich’s Herkulesaal, the Great Hall at Franz Liszt Academy in Budapest, Vrodenburg Festival in Holland, Boston’s Longy School of Music, Chopin International Festival in Poland, Rubinstein Philharmonic Hall in Lodz and Japan’s Osaka Hall. She has also performed festivals in the US, UK, Israel, France, Spain, Brazil, South Africa and at the Maputo International Music Festival in Mozambique, Africa.

We are honored and excited to have her perform here on the beautiful Mendocino coast, in the village of Mendocino.

Location: Mark your calendars for February 16, 2014 for a one day engagement, here in Mendocino, at Preston Hall, 44831 Main Street, Mendocino at 3 pm.

Tickets are $20 in advance or $25 at the door. Click here to order tickets online.

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Point Cabrillo Lighthouse’s Fresnel Lens Closer to Being Decommissioned


The Point Cabrillo Lighthouse was illuminated for the first time on June 10, 1909

The Point Cabrillo Lighthouse is a State Historic Park property which is owned by California State Parks and operated by the Point Cabrillo Lightkeepers Association. The lantern room which houses a third order, British built Fresnel Lens with a range of 13 – 15 miles is owned by the U. S. Coast Guard.

It is reported that Chief Warrant Officer Barthel, is waiting to list the decommissioning of the Point Cabrillo Light Station’s beacon in a local notice to mariners until the Coast Guard Curatorial Service Office makes a decision about a waiver applied for by the Point Cabrillo Lightkeepers Association. 

When a lens is decommissioned, it becomes a historic artifact under Coast Guard regulations. The lens is then under the jurisdiction of the U. S. Coast Guard Exhibit Center and is subject to specific rules. Regulations require lenses to be extinguished and removed from the tower. 

It was back in 1939 that the U. S. Lighthouse Service was officially absorbed into the U. S. Coast Guard. Originally the lens rotated by means of a clockworks mechanism with a descending weight. A chain with a 65-80 LB weight on the end of it passed through the floor of each level of the light tower. The light keeper would crank up the chain onto a drum every 2 hours. At some point, a portion of the concrete foundation on the ground floor was removed to add an additional 4-5 feet to the chain, gaining (perhaps) an additional ten minutes between windings. The clockworks were replaced with an electric motor and the oil lamp with a light bulb when electricity was introduced at the Station in 1935. The lens rotated at a fixed speed and produced a flash at ten second intervals. The rotation pattern of a lighthouse is printed on the nautical chart, it’s the lighthouse “signature” and must not vary.

In 1973, the Fresnel lens was disengaged, and an aero-marine type rotating beacon was mounted on the roof of the fog signal building. The original lens remained in the lantern room but the clockworks and fog signal machinery were removed. Then in 1996 the Conservancy was awarded a federal grant through the ISTEA program (Intermodal Surface Transportation Enhancement Activities) for the restoration of the lantern room and the creation of public service facilities at Point Cabrillo (parking and restrooms). Work on the project began in August of 1998 when the Fresnel lens was dismantled and removed from the lantern room. The lantern room restoration was completed in April 1999 and the Fresnel lens was refurbished and reinstated as the active aid in time for Point Cabrillo’s 90th Anniversary. The restoration of the Fresnel lens was funded by the NCIA with assistance from the Coast Guard. The restoration of the fog signal building was funded by the NCIA and the Coastal Conservancy. The restoration of the rest of the lighthouse tower and fog signal building was completed in August of 2001 with funds provided by the Coastal Conservancy and the NCIA.

In 2002 ownership of the Lightstation was transferred from the California State Coastal Conservancy to California State Parks. The terms of the transfer provided $4 million dollars from State Parks to the restoration of the remaining buildings at the light station. This money, administrated by the Conservancy was provided over a 5 year period to the Point Cabrillo  Lightkeepers Association to do the actual restoration work. During this period the East House was restored and is now serving as the Lightkeepers Museum, the Head Lightkeepers house was restored and is now a vacation rental. The three outbuildings were also restored and two are now vacation rental bedrooms, while the third was converted to a public restroom. Restoration work ceased in 2007 with restoration of the West House awaiting additional funding.

The Point Cabrillo LightKeepers Association has applied for a waiver through the U. S. Coast Guard Curatorial Service Office to keep the Fresnel lens operating as a private aid to navigation after it is decommissioned, since the U. S. Coast Guard policy is to protect the lenses and the service does not care to keep the lenses operating after decommissioning them. A decommissioned lens remains the property of the U. S. Coast Guard, but that the U. S. Coast Guard regularly loans decommissioned lenses to museums. The Point Cabrillo Light Keepers Association, the nonprofit organization that manages the Point Cabrillo State Historic Park, would become borrowers of the  lens.

The Point Cabrillo Lightkeepers Association circulated an email to supporters and volunteers stating that losing the light would be catastrophic for the light station and the park, effectively removing the heart if the light goes out in the lighthouse, the park’s soul will go dark with it. Also removing the lens from the top to inside the lighthouse would be expensive.

Originally restoring the lighthouse and lens cost about $1.5 million dollars from taxpayers and local donors. There is more than 50,000 visitors that come to the light station every year.

It is reported that Loren Rex, who is the superintendent of State Parks Mendocino District, said an agreement between the U. S. Coast Guard, the California State Parks and the Point Cabrillo Lightkeepers Association provides the contained operation of the light should it be decommissioned. He said the California State Parks and Point Cabrillo Lightkeepers Association would work in partnership to maintain the light and facilities, but the Point Cabrillo Lightkeepers Association would assume all financial responsibility for operation and maintaining the light. 

There was no comment from the State Parks Mendocino District on the waiver process. The state is respectful of the U. S. Coast Guard authorities in Washington D. C. to honor their promise to this community that if we raise the money and did the work, when they decommissioned it, we would be allowed to turn it back on as a private aid.

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2014 International Alsace Varietals Festival


Saturday & Sunday, February 8, 9, 2014

Anderson Valley stretches from the Yorkville Highlands through Boonville to Navarro. This unique geography results in a wide temperature range, with daily high and low temperatures occasionally diverging 40 or 50 degrees which makes for a superb condition for growing aromatic white wines.  Enjoy a weekend celebration of aromatic white wines like Riesling, Pinot Gris, Pinot Blanc, Gewurztraminer and Muscat which will be the focus of this years event. Winemakers from France, Germany and New Zealand will be pouring samples alongside wineries from Michigan, New York, Oregon, California and our own Anderson Valley. Events include an educational session, chef’s demonstration, grand tasting and winemaker dinner. Also on Sunday enjoy a open house throughout the valley at all the participating wineries.

  • International Alsace Varietals Festival Education Sessions: Listen and interact with winemakers from around the world as they discuss winemaking and grape growing specifically for Alsace varietals. As part of this program they will be having a blind Riesling tasting and panel discussion and food and wine pairing with a CIA wine educator. Plus enjoy a horizontal tasting of four Gewurztramine’s sourced from the same vineyard in Anderson Valley. Also Chef Francois de Melogue will offer an educational and entertaining demonstration to highlight why so many food styles pair beautifully with the featured wine. This session is from 8:30 – 12:45 pm and includes a light breakfast. Tickets to this event is $45.
  • International Alsace Varietals Festival Grand Tasting: Meet the winemakers and taste Alsace style white wines from around the world. Enjoy foods perfectly suited for aromatic whites including Tomales Bay oysters, Tart Flambee’ and more. Wines to be poured include Riesling, Gewurtztraminer, Pinot Gris, Pinot Blanc and Muscat. The Grand Tasting will have over 100 wines to be sampled along with delectable bites at seven food pairing tables. This event is between 1:00 – 4:00 pm. Tickets to this event is $65.

Participating wineries have included: Anne Amie, Breggo Cellars, Claiborne & Churchill, Claudia Springs Winery, Cutruzzola Vineyards, Elke Vineyards, Esterlina, Foris, Greenwood Ridge Vineyards, Handley Cellars, Husch Vineyards, Lazy Creek Vineyards, Londer Vineyards, Lula Cellars, Navarro Vineyards, New Zealand Winegrowers,  Philo Ridge Vineyards, Trefethen, Domaines Schlumberger, Stony Hill, Tatomer,Thomas Fogarty, Toulouse, Valkenberg.

  • Alsace Varietals Winemakers Dinner: Enjoy a special menu created by a renowned local chef in the intimate private dining room at Scharffenberger Cellars. Dine with one of six featured winemakers and learn firsthand why these aromatic whites are the darlings of the wine world. Time: 6:30 pm. Tickets for this event is $130.

These events will be held at the Mendocino County Fairgrounds in downtown Boonville. The street address is 14400 Highway 128. Sorry no kids or pets allowed.

Then enjoy Anderson Valley Winery Open Houses on Sunday, February 9, from 11:00 am – 5:00 pm. Spend the day touring the many winery open houses. Savor tasty pairings, and taste unique and vintage Alsace varietal wines, and enjoy live music.

To buy tickets for any of the events click here.

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Symphony of the Redwoods – Winter Symphony Concert



Featured Artist: Stephen Harrison, Cellist

This will be the second concert for the 30th season of the Symphony of the Redwoods, 2013 – 2014 concert season. The concert will be held on Saturday & Sunday, February 8, 9, 2014 at the Cotton Auditorium, Fort Bragg, California. Enjoy Sibelius Symphony No. 1 in E Minor, op 39 and also Dvorak Cello Concerto in B Minor, op 104.

STEPHEN HARRISON, cellist, has been on the faculty at Stanford University since 1983 when he returned to his native Bay Area to become cellist of the newly formed Stanford String Quartet.  His performing life has combined chamber, solo and contemporary music. During his fourteen years with the Stanford String Quartet he recorded and toured internationally with a number of works commissioned for the ensemble, including those by Pulitzer-Prize winning composer William Bolcom, Ben Johnston, and Donald Crockett. In 1998 he co-founded the Ives Quartet and continues performing, recording (on the Naxos, New World and AIX Entertainment labels) and teaching with that ensemble in the Bay Area and around the U.S.

A graduate of the Oberlin Conservatory and Boston University’s School for the Arts (where he won the award for Distinction in Graduate Performance), he has been solo cellist of the San Francisco Contemporary Music Players since 1985.  With the Contemporary Players, he has given over 50 world premieres and made commercial recordings for the CRI, Albany, Music and Arts, New Albion, Newport Classics, New World and YBM labels.

Former principal cellist of the Chamber Symphony of San Francisco and the New England Chamber Orchestra, he is currently principal cellist of the Mendocino Music Festival Orchestra and cellist at the Telluride Chamber Music Festival.  Mr. Harrison has served as artist / faculty at the Rocky Ridge Music Center, Italy’s Schlern and Orfeo International Music Festivals, and the San Diego Chamber Music Workshop.

Cotton Auditorium: From Main Street (Hwy 1) in Fort Bragg, head East (a right turn if you’re coming from the South) on Fir Street. Cotton Auditorium is six blocks from Main Street at the intersection of Fir Street and N. Harold Street.

Tickets $20. Click here to order tickets online.

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New Exhibit Traces John Muir’s Study of a Planet Full of Plants



On January 25th, from 2 to 4 pm, the Grace Hudson Museum presents an opening reception for “Nature’s Beloved Son: Rediscovering John Muir’s Botanical Legacy,” an exhibition of digitally enhanced high-resolution images of Muir’s wide-ranging plant specimens, along with pages and drawings from Muir’s nature journals. At 2 pm, John Muir re-enactor Frank Helling will present his live act “A Visit with John Muir—The Scootcher of a Lifetime,” followed by refreshments. The event is FREE with Museum admission.

John Muir (1838 – 1914) who was born in Scotland, while still a child, migrated with his family to Wisconsin. John Muir played many roles in his remarkable life—philosopher, writer, explorer, environmentalist (he was a founding member and first president of the Sierra Club). Yet his impressive legacy as a botanist–his willingness to hear what a plant had to tell–is not as well known.

While collecting and cataloging plant and animal samples can be for many a purely scientific pursuit, for John Muir it was of a part with his life’s work: a rapturous devotion to the presence and power of nature. That story was taken up by exhibit curator and Muir historian Bonnie Gisel, who, along with photographer Stephen Joseph, created the book “Nature’s Beloved Son” (published by Heyday Books in 2008), upon which this exhibit is based. Gisel pored through Muir’s articles, drawings, journals and books, making lists of the plants Muir made note of, then traveled to national parks, botanical gardens, natural museums and universities to track down the hundreds of plants collected by Muir and bring them together.

After that, photographer Stephen Joseph scanned and restored the images to their original presentation, so that they looked much as Muir would have seen them. To do this, he underwent a painstaking process, removing the glue or tape that held each plant to its sheet of paper and scanning it into a computer program for three to twenty hours per plant. Sections which remained hidden behind tape or glue were rebuilt; the contrast and color of the plants were heightened. The original notes, envelopes and labels are included. (“Before and after” images of plant samples that Joseph digitally restored are on display at the exhibit.) Muir preserved the plants he collected in a plant press made of strips of hard wood nailed together using straw board and newspaper. (A replica of the press is included in the exhibit.) Not all of the specimens he collected have been preserved, but many were found in special collections and herbaria around the country. (Some were even discovered in an attic.) In this era when the medicinal qualities of plants is being rediscovered and biodiversity is at risk, the collections of John Muir and others who contribute to herbaria are more invaluable than ever.

This exhibit will be on display until March 16, 2014. But there will be additional special events planned in conjunction with this exhibit. On February 4, the Museum Curator Marvin Schenck will conduct a special tour. Then on February 7, there will be a papermaking workshop by Lost Coast Culture Machine. Then on February 22, a Family Fun at the Museum workshop, and on March 16, will be an illustrated lecture by author and naturalist Kate Marianchild.

The Grace Hudson Museum is at 431 South Main Street, Ukiah. General admission is $4 or $10 per family and $3 for students and seniors. For additional information call 707-467-2836.

Few are altogether deaf to the preaching of pine trees. Their sermons on the mountains go to our hearts; and if people in general could be got into the woods, even for once, to hear the trees speak for themselves, all difficulties in the way of forest preservation would vanish. –John Muir

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Stevenswood Ocean View Exercise Room



Some of the Equipment Looking out at the Gardens with a Partial Distant Ocean View

At the beginning of each New Year most people make their New Years resolution, and one of the most popular is staying healthy with a proper diet and exercise. Here at Stevenswood we have an assortment of great exercise equipment to help you keep up with your goals. This is a current list of the great equipment that we have in our exercise room to help meet your needs.

T-Zone Vibration Technology

When you stand on T-Zone’s oscillating vibration technology platform, vertical vibrations are produced with a side-alternating rocking movement, similar to walking.

Our body reacts to this natural stimulus with an involuntary reflex muscle contraction. Depending on the speed, muscles will react up to 32 times per second (approximately 16 contractions and 16 relaxations), and as the acceleration forces increase, your body will feel as though it “weighs” more. This clever technology means you can work against a far greater influence or “load” of gravity in every movement you perform.

The result – more benefits! Unlike other vibration technology fitness machines, T-Zone’s technology is particularly unique because it may achieve results for a wide range of objectives, for all ages and body types. There are two main types of vibration available:

Oscillating/ Pivotal Vibration Technology Used by T-Zone Health

Oscillating vibration is the most natural vibrating movement and has the widest range of benefits. People find this type of vibration technology most comfortable and it makes sense that muscles are activated alternately as they would be in walking.

This is by far the most popular type of vibration machine technology with many scientific studies to support it. Widely used by chiropractors, physiotherapists, trainers and doctors across the world, this type of vibration technology is suitable for all ages and health levels.

Teeter Hang Ups

Benefits of Inversion

Don’t just cover up symptoms; target the source of your ache! Teeter Hang Ups has helped millions like you find natural relief in the convenience of their own homes, and takes only a few minutes a day!

Relieve Back Pain
Relaxes muscles, rehydrates discs, realigns & reduces pressure
Ease Stress
Releases tension in shoulders, neck & back
Improve Joint Health
Decompresses, strengthens & enhances shock absorption
Increase Flexibility
Improves functional fitness for an active, healthy lifestyle
Improve Fitness and Build Core Strength

Bowflex Xtreme® 2 SE Home Gym

Boxflex Xtreme 2 SE Home Gym

Product Features

210 lbs of Power Rod® Resistance Standard 
Bowflex® Power Rod® units give you resistance, or weight, that feels as good as or better than free weights but without the inertia or risk of joint pain usually associated with free weights. The Bowflex Xtreme® 2 SE comes standard with 210 lbs / 95 kg and is upgradeable up to 310 lbs / 140 kg or 410 lbs / 186 kg! 

Revolutionary No-Change Cable Pulley System 
Lets you move from squats to lats to leg workouts without ever changing cables. That means you’ll save time and keep your heart rate up as you progress through your workout. 

Lat Tower with Angled Lat Bar 
Build back and shoulder muscles quickly with this integrated tower. 

4-Position Lower Pulley/Squat Station 
Use this station to do squats and build your glutes, hamstrings and quads. 

Leg Extension 
Use for exercises to develop strong, muscular legs. 

Abdominal Crunch Shoulder Harness 
All new ab harness and ab pulley bar help you build strong, defined abs. 

Ergonomic Adjustable Seat with Polyurethane Cushion 
New design provides added back support for leg exercises and knee support for lat exercises. 

Compact Size for Smaller Workout Space 
Gym-style vertical workout position. Reinforced “X”-shaped base for maximum stability. 

5-Way Hand-Grip/Ankle Cuffs 
Our unique handgrip is designed to add flexibility and performance to any workout. Functions include a Regular Grip, Non-Grip Cuff, Ankle Cuff, Foot Cuff and a Shoulder Cuff. 

Multiple Cable/Pulley Positions 
Designed to change your angle of resistance – increases the effectiveness of many exercises. 

Recumbant Exercise Bike - Reebok RB 345 Bike

Reebok Cycle RB 345

Keep your workouts as smooth as possible with the feature-packed Reebok® RB 345 stationary bike. The RB 345 comes with SMR™ Silent Magnetic Resistance to adjust your workout intensity without interrupting your workout, an adjustable frame and a GelSoft™ Seat designed for your ultimate comfort and eight workout programs plus iFIT® Interactive Personal Training to customize your workouts to meet your personal fitness needs.


  • SMR™ Silent Magnetic Resistance

  • CoolAire™ Workout Fan

  • Patented Oversized GelSoft™ Seat

  • Target Pacing Coach™

  • Adjustable Recumbent Frame

  • Instant Feedback Display

  • 8 Workout Programs

  • EKG™ Grip Pulse Monitor

  •® Compatible

Treadmill Pro Form 665 E


  • Compatible Music Port for iPod®*: Move to the beat of your favorite music with this built-in sound system

  • Plug your iPod®, or MP3 Player, into the Interplay” Music Port for unbeatable sound quality

  • With the iPod® resting on the console shelf, it’s within easy reach and leaves the controls right at your fingertips

  • As you match the encouraging cadence of the concert-like sound, you’ll discover the dramatic difference the Interplay” Music Port brings to your workout

    *\niPod is a trademark of Apple, Inc., registered in the US and other countries. iPod® not included

  • 16 Personal Trainer Workouts: Burn fat, lose calories and stay motivated with Personal Trainer Workouts

  • These programs take the guesswork out of your workout by automatically adjusting the speed and incline of the treadmill for increased intensity

  • Choose between aerobic, weight-loss, endurance or performance workouts and you’ll be on your way to success

  • The speed, incline and time of each workout are pre-determined so the only thing you have to worry about is pressing start

  • ProFlex Plus” Cushioning: Offering more comfort and protection, the triple-barrel ProFlex Plus” cushion allows you to take your workout farther, while adding more joint protection than ever before

  • Mach Z” 2.75 HP Drive Motor: Experience expanded power with this quiet, self-cooling drive system

  • Employing an axial fan, this motor reduces noise as it cools internal components enhancing your workout environment and extending the motor’s life

  • Bright Green LED Display: Get fast, easy-to-read workout feedback with this exclusive display that blends high-visibility LED technology with intelligent styling

  • This console also includes a 5×7 workout matrix that displays your workout graphically displays your speed, distance, time, pulse and calories burned

  • 0-10 MPH QuickSpeed” Control: Instead of tediously scrolling through options, QuickSpeed” allows you to instantly change the speed of the treadmill between 0-10 MPH with the single touch of a button

  • 0-10% Quick Incline” Control: The best and most convenient incline adjustment, the patent pending Quick Incline” allows you to change the incline with the single touch of a button instead of tediously scrolling through options as you would with traditional incline controls

  • Dual-Grip EKG” Heart Rate Monitor: Make the most out of every workout by monitoring your heart rate with these sensors that are built into the handlebars, ensuring you’re always in the right training zone for your goal\n

  • 20 x 55 Quiet Treadbelt: A vital component of the drive system, this roomy treadmill belt is designed to operate more smoothly and quietly than the average treadmill belt

  • 300 lb. Weight Capacity: Able to accommodate weights up to 300 lbs., this sturdy deck withstands heavy use

 ProForm Space Saver 600 Elliptical - ProForm Ellipticals

Elliptical Pro Form  600

The ProForm SpaceSaver 600 Elliptical provides three different stride lengths to fit your own size – 13”, 15”, and 18.” Listen to your own music while getting instructions with the MP3 music port and iFit workout technology. (iFit sold separately.) Then fold it up for easy storage. With the built-in personal trainer workouts, heart rate monitor, and easy-to-read display, you have everythig you need for the body you want. All at an affordable price!


  • Silent Magnetic Resistance

  • Adjustable Stride Length

  • Fold-up SpaceSaver Design

  • Built-in workout programs

  • Contact Heart Rate Monitor

  • Upper-Body Workout Arms

  • InterPlay Music Port

  • Back-Lit Console

  • 4 Personal Trainer Workouts

  • Target Pacer

  • Workout Fan

  • Oversized Pedals

  • 275 user weight capacity

Two Person Infrared Sauna

Infrared Sauna Health Benefits

Infrared saunas are an effective tool for natural healing and prevention. Infrared light has the ability to penetrate human tissue which in turn produces a host of anti-aging health benefits making infrared saunas one of the “hottest” home therapies for overall healthier living. If you want to get yourself back into balance, an infrared sauna may be the ticket to achieving your wellness goals. 


Sweating is the body’s safe and natural way to heal & stay healthy. Infrared sauna benefits the body by heating it directly causing a rise in core temperature resulting in a deep, detoxifying sweat at the cellular level, where toxins reside. 


Unlike traditional saunas which operate at extremely harsh temperatures, infrared is a gentle, soothing and therapeutic heat that promotes relaxation and improved sleep. Infrared sauna benefits include therapy that helps you relax while receiving an invigorating deep tissue sweat, leaving you fully refreshed after each session. 

Lower Blood Pressure

Infrared sauna induce a deep sweat to make the heart pump faster, which in turn increases blood flow, lowers blood pressure and helps circulation. Scientific evidence shows the infrared sauna benefits using an infrared sauna a couple times a week lowers blood pressure. 

Anti-Aging & Skin Purification

The near infrared wavelength (sometimes referred to as Red Light Therapy) is the most effective wavelength for healing the epidermis and dermis layers of the skin. Near Infrared treatments stimulate collagen production to reduce wrinkles and improve overall skin tone. 

Cell Health

Near infrared therapy stimulates the circulatory system and more fully oxygenate the body’s cells. Better blood circulation means more toxins flow from the cellular level to the skin’s surface to improve cell health, aid in muscle recovery and strengthen the immune system.

Weight Loss

Studies have shown that benefits of an infrared sauna session can burn upwards of 600 calories while you relax! As the body works to cool itself, there is a substantial increase in heart rate, cardiac output and metabolic rate, causing the body to burn more calories. 

Pain Relief

Infrared heat penetrates tissue, joints, and muscles to relieve anything from minor aches and pains to chronic pain conditions such as fibromyalgia. Pain management professionals incorporate infrared heat therapy into treatment plans to decrease pain and muscle spasms and to speed up recovery time. 

Improved Circulation

Heating the muscles with infrared rays produces an increase in blood flow similar to that seen during exercise. Regular infrared sauna use—especially in the mid infrared range—can significantly stimulate blood flow up to twice the normal rate.

Wound Healing

Scientific research has concluded that near infrared therapy greatly enhances the skin’s healing process by promoting faster cell regeneration and human tissue growth. Human cell growth increases to repair wounds and prevent infection.

 Overall Health Benefits

  • The release of fat-soluble toxins and toxic body chemicals through perspiration

  • Elevated heart rate leading to increased blood flow and accelerated calorie burn

  • Enhancement of the immune system due to an increase in body temperature

  • Stress reduction due to increased and improved blood flow

  • Endorphin release due to increased heart rate

  • Improved circulation due to expanded capillaries

  • Weight loss due to toxin release from fat cells and increased caloric burn

  • Cardiovascular conditioning and the lowering of blood pressure

  • Reduction in cellulite due to significant sweating

  • Reduction in arthritic and muscle pain

  • Enhanced skin tone due to the opening of skin pores

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California Recording its Driest Calendar Year on Record


 Monday Dec. 30, 2013 at Lake Mendocino. (Kent Porter / Press Democrat)

With California recording its driest Calendar year on record, the level of Lake Mendocino continues to drop. The Sonoma County Water Agency has cut flows in the Russian River by 30% since Tuesday in an effort to preserve dwindling supplies in Lake Mendocino. Currently Lake Mendocino is at a 39% of its capacity. The region is coming out of a record year, with just 7.67 inches of rain falling in the upper reaches of the Russian River, as measured at Ukiah, which usually sees at least 34 inches of rain. 

With no major rain predicted for the early weeks of January, it is reported that the agency is preparing to face a second straight dry year. Without cutting the flows dramatically now, there is a risk of the reservoir effectively running dry next summer should the drought continue. It is reported that Cloverdale City Manager Paul Cayler plans to update the City Council and ask members to approve an ordinance authorizing a system of mandatory water conservation measures later in the month.

Ken Montgomery of the Anderson Valley Nursery reported on the Anderson Valley Advertiser Online said during the past twelve months (calendar year January 1 through December 31, 2013), he recorded 8.5 inches of rainfall at his nursery in Boonville. The 77-year annual average around here is slightly more than 42 inches. That makes 2013 only about 20% of “normal.”

Mr. Montgomery said the driest calendar year for which there are local records turns out to be 1976 with 16.8 inches. There were other really dry years in the mid-1940s and from 1984 to 1992 with rainfall totals ranging from 22 to 30 inches. But without a doubt, 2013 was by far our driest year in a long time at only 50% of 1976 and at 28% to 38% of other “critically dry” years. Monthly rainfall totals from the nearby Caltrans Maintenance Yard outside of Boonville on Hwy 128 dating from 1936-37 and my own daily records since 1978 tell the story. Average September-December rainfall is about 16 inches. The driest year was 1936 with 3.9 inches. A number of other years were also very dry, ranging from 4.5 to 5.5 inches. Incredibly, fall 2013 is only half of that!

Photo: We should be in the midst of our wet season, but CA hasn't had many wet days since October.  #dry #California   Photo: The low levels of Folsom Lake this year have revealed the ruins of an old Gold Rush town that was long hidden. This photo was taken by one of our forecasters.

From the U. S. National Weather Service Facebook Page

The low levels of Folsom Lake this year (pictured above) have revealed the ruins of an old Gold Rush town that was long hidden. This photo was taken by one of their forecasters, January 1, 2014.

Picture taken by Kent Porter/Press Democrat

These are the fish spawning grounds on the lake bed at Lake Pillsbury taken on Monday, December 30, 2013. It is reported that the water level at Lake Pillsbury is less than 13% of capacity. Lake Pillsbury is an artificial lake in the Mendocino National Forest. This lake is created from the waters impounded from the Eel River by Scott Dam. Elevation of Lake Pillsbury is 1,818 feet with a 65 mile shoreline covering over 2,000 acres. 

History: The Eel River Power and Irrigation Company in 1906, contracted with the city of Ukiah for a hydraulic generation station to increase electricity supply for the city. A diversion dam was built to divert water into the Russian River, and a powerhouse was constructed in Potter Valley. By 1908 water was being diverted to the power plant and then to the Russian River. Part two of the project was building the dam which created Lake Pillsbury, located 12 miles upstream. Scott Dam was completed in 1921. It maintains water flow to the hydroelectric plant during the times of low water runoff. PG&E acquired the project in 1933, and maintains the facility today. The Pillsbury hydroelectric plant is the only one in the north coast region of California.

Lake Oroville, November 18, 2013. Picture taken by Bill Husa

The California Department of Water Resources has reported back in November that Lake Oroville was just 39% full, or 63% of average. Lake Shasta is even worse at 37% full. With another dry winter looming, California lawmakers back in November called on Governor Jerry Brown and President Obama to declare a drought emergency and federal disaster in the state. What is clear is that these dry conditions have depleted our reservoirs and reduced carry over storage that historically these low levels have not been seen since 1977. While a drought has not been declared, a dry 2014 could be disastrous with sub-par rainfall.

Snow Water Equivalents (inches)

Provided by the California Cooperative Snow Surveys

California Snow Region Map

Data For: 03-Jan-2014
% Apr 1 Avg. / % Normal for this Date
4% / 10% – Northern Sierra/Trinity
8% / 21% – Central Sierra
10% / 29% – Southern Sierra
Information taken from the Department of Water Resources
California Data Exchange Center
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Mendocino Steam Donkey Rugby Club


Mendocino Rugby Football Club Steam Donkey Logo

Mendocino Steam Donkey Rugby Football Emblem

The Mendocino Steam Donkey Rugby Club began in 2006 and belongs in the California Rugby Football Union, in the Men’s Division III. The Mendocino Steam Donkey Rugby Team was founded in 2005 by Liam Kidd, and started with only 8 players. Over the years, word about the Mendocino Steam Donkey’s spread over the county, sparking lots of interest which brought players not only around Ukiah, which makes up the heart of the club, but from surrounding communities, like Potter Valley, Willits, Boonville, Hopland, Mendocino, Fort Bragg and even from neighboring Lake county.

This year the Steam Donkeys play twelve matches in the Division III Northern California league.  They will travel to play in Redding, Humboldt County, San Francisco, Santa Rosa, Napa, and Yreka.  The Steam Donkeys will also play six matches at our home pitch as well, located at the Pomolita field located next to the county offices on North Bush Street, near Low Gap Road.  The matches are always FREE, family friendly events, and the club encourages every one to come out and support the fastest growing sport in America.


(Photo by Sonia Campbell)

Mendocino Steam Donkeys Take Home Emerald Cup With Win Over Humboldt Old Growth in 2013 Season

On Saturday, March 16, 2013 was Mendocino Steam Donkey’s vs. Humboldt Old Growth in Ukiah. Both squads stepped onto the pitch (field) expecting a hard hitting battle and neither side would be disappointed. With the hopes of taking home the coveted Emerald Cup on the line, the two clubs appeared ready to play for bragging rights in this continuing rivalry.

After somewhat of a sloppy start by both clubs, Mendocino committed the first penalty the match within their own 22 meter line. This mistake led to an early lead for Humboldt, who opted to kick for points, and took a 3-0 lead at the eight minute mark. eleven minutes into the match, the referee called a penalty on Humboldt which the Mendocino Steam Donkeys took advantage of with Manny Griego ran 50 meters to score a try. After Manny Greigo converted the kick, the Steam Donkeys led 7-3.

At the 20 minute mark with a nice pass from Griego, the outside center Joshua Landers snatched the ball, and eluded a few defenders, and scored a try to the corner of he try zone. Although Griego missed the kick, Mendocino still held a solid 12-3 lead.

A little more than halfway through the first half, a penalty went in Humboldt’s favor on Mendocino’s 5 meter line. A visiting player quick tapped and scored a try just left of the posts, making the score 12-8 after also missing the kick. The after the 40 minute mark when flanker Erik Harmon extended the ball across the try line, giving Mendocino a 17-8 lead. Manny Greigo converted another kick and gave Mendocino the lead of 19-8.

After the break, Humboldt stormed out of the gates. 4 minutes into the second half, they were able to work the ball 50 meters and score a quick try under the posts, cutting into Mendocino’s lead. A converted kick made the score 19-15. Near the hour mark, Mendocino’s #8 man, Ryan Morris, broke off a solid run near the 50 meter line, only to be tackled by a pari of defenders 22 meters away from the try zone. The next play Martin ran the remaining 22 meters to score the try. Griego did not convert the kick. Mendocino was now up 24-15.

With less than 8 minutes left in the match, Mendocino started to prove themselves a more energized team. Their tackling remained solid, their passing crisp. Around the 50 meter line, with a series of accurate passes from several players. Dillon Campbell caught the ball and ran along the sideline. As he was about to get tackled out of bounds by two Humboldt defenders, he tossed a no look pass behind his back to his brother Branden Campbell, who used his speed to outrun the rest of the defenders and score Mendocino’s final try of the game.

While Humboldt remained stunned, Manny Griego went ahead and converted the kick, giving the Mendocino Steam Donkeys the last score of the game, the claim to the Emerald Cup, and bragging rights for this heated rivalry. The final score was Mendocino Steam Donkeys 31, Humboldt Old Growth 15.

All Games start at 1:00 pm. Mendocino home matches are played at Pomolita Field, Ukiah. (Season 2014)

Week #1 – January 4, BYE WEEK (No Game)

Week #2 – January 11, Mendocino at Shasta (Away)

Week #3 – January 18, Redwood Empire at Mendocino (Home)

Week #4 – February 1, Mendocino at Humboldt (Away)

Week #5 – February 8, BYE WEEK (No Game)

Week #6 – February 15, S. F. Fog at Mendocino (Home)

Week #7 – February 22, Mendocino at State of Jefferson (Away)

Week #8 – March 1, Humboldt at Mendocino (Home)

Week #9 – March 8, Shasta at Mendocino (Home)

Week #10 – March 15, Mendocino at Redwood Empire (Away)

Week #11 – March 22, Mendocino at Napa (Away)

Week #12 – March 29, BYE WEEK (No Game)

Week #13 – April 5, Mendocino at S. F. Fog (Away)

Week #14 – April 12 – State of Jefferson at Mendocino (Home)


Spectators Guide to Rugby


ORIGINS OF RUGBY – Rugby is the precursor of American football and has been played in the United States since about 1870. American football, as well as basketball, owes many of it’s characteristics to rugby. In fact, basketball was invented by James Naismith as an indoor alternative to rugby when the New England winters required an indoor game.  Some of rugby’s characteristics such as quick switches between attack and defense, ball handling and committing defenders to attack space are all found in basketball. Some people liken rugby to tackle basketball on grass. There are several obvious differences between rugby and American football. Rugby is played at a fast pace, with few stoppages and continuous possession changes. All players on the field, regardless of position, can run, pass, kick and catch the ball. Likewise, all players must also be able to tackle and defend, making each position both offensive and defensive in nature. There is no blocking of the opponents like in football and there are a maximum of seven substitutions allowed per team.

RUGBY ETHOS - All players, coaches, officials, parents and fans are encouraged to remember that rugby holds a unique place in American sport.  It is an international fraternal sport that is based on hard but fair competition, and camaraderie. The International Rugby Board (IRB), the governing body for rugby around the world, Charter states: “Rugby owes much of its appeal to the fact that it is played both to the letter and within the spirit of the Laws. The responsibility for ensuring this practice lies not with one individual — it involves coaches, captains, players and referees. It is through discipline, control and mutual respect that the spirit of the game flourishes and, in the context of a game as physically challenging as rugby, these are the qualities which forge the fellowship and sense of fair play so essential to the game’s ongoing success and survival. Rugby is valued as a sport for men and women, boys and girls. It builds teamwork, understanding, co-operation and respect for fellow athletes… It is because of, not despite, rugby’s intensely physical and athletic characteristics that such great camaraderie exists before and after matches.”

TIME OF MATCH - A match consists of two 40-minute halves (35 minutes for high school and youth), and there are no time outs.  Play only stops for infractions, dead balls (when the ball is buried in a ruck or maul), or when the ball goes out of bounds.  The clock only stops for injuries.

FIELD OF PLAY - Rugby is played on a field, called a pitch, which is longer and wider than a football field, more like a soccer field. Additionally, there are 10 meter end zones, called the try zones or in-goal area, behind the goalposts. The goalposts are the same size as American football goalposts.

THE BALL - A rugby ball is made of leather or other similar synthetic material and is best described as a large, over-inflated football with no laces.

PLAYERS & POSITIONS - Rugby has fifteen (15) players on each team. Everyone on the pitch plays offense and defense, and the number of each player signifies that player’s specific position. Jersey numbers above 15 are worn by substitute players. Players numbered one (1) through eight (8) are forwards, typically the larger, stronger players of the team whose main job is to win possession of the ball. They would be the equivalent to American football linebackers and lineman.  Players numbered nine (9) through fifteen (15) are backs, the smaller, faster and more agile players. Their main role is to exploit possession of the ball won by the forwards. Backs may be equated to running backs, wide receivers and quarterbacks in American football.

STARTING THE GAME - Just as in American football, rugby begins with a kickoff to the opponent from mid-field. Provided that the ball travels beyond the 10-meter line, any player from either team may gain possession of the ball. You may occasionally see players lift each other to gain advantage here.

MOVING OR ADVANCING THE BALL – Rugby, like soccer, is continuous. There is no blocking in rugby. Additionally, rugby does not have downs and it is not required to reach 10 yards and stop. The person with the ball leads the attack. There are only three ways to move the ball in rugby:  a player may carry (run), pass or kick the ball.  When a player is tackled or the ball hits the ground play is not stopped, unless there is some sort of infraction or the ball is considered dead or buried in a ruck or maul.  The game is intended to be free flowing and continuous.

  1. Running: When running the ball, players may continue to run until they are tackled, step out of bounds or run beyond the goal line. Players run the ball to advance toward the opponent’s goal line.

  2. Passing: The ball may be passed to any player. However, it may only be passed laterally or backward, never forward. Players pass the ball to an open teammate to keep it in play and further advance it.

  3. Kicking: Any player may kick the ball forward at any time. Once the ball is kicked, players of either team, regardless of whether or not the ball hits the ground, may gain possession. Players typically kick the ball to a teammate in an effort to advance it or to the opposing team to obtain relief from poor field position.

SCORING - There are four ways for a team to score points in rugby:

  1. Try: Five (5) points are awarded to a team for touching the ball down in the other team’s in-goal area. This is much like a touchdown in American football but requires the ball actually be grounded.

  2. Conversion: Following a try, two (2) points are awarded for a successful kick through the goal posts. The attempt is taken on a line, at least 10 meters from the try line, straight out from the point where the ball was touched down. This is like an extra point in American football.

  3. Penalty Kick: Following a major law violation, the kicking team, if in range, has the option to “kick for points.” Three (3) points are awarded for a successful penalty kick. The kick must be from the point of the penalty or anywhere on a line straight behind that point. The ball can be played if the kick fails.

  4. Drop Goal: Three (3) points are awarded for a successful drop kick. A drop kick may be taken from anywhere on the field during play. A drop goal is similar to a field goal in football; however, in rugby the kick is made during the course of normal play. The ball is alive if the kick fails. 

RESTARTING PLAY - There are three methods of restarting play following a stoppage caused by either the ball going out of bounds or because of an infraction of the laws.

  1. Line-Out: If the ball goes out of bounds, it is restarted with a line-out. Except for a penalty kick out of bounds, the team that kicks or runs the ball out of bounds turns over the possession to the other team.  Both teams form a line perpendicular to the touchline and one-meter (three feet) apart from one another. A team taking possession calls a play and throws the ball in the air in a straight line between the two lines. Players of each team may be supported in the air by their teammates to gain possession of the ball. This is similar to a jump ball in basketball.

  2. Scrum: Rugby’s unique formation, the forerunner of the American football line of scrimmage, is the method used to restart the game after the referee has whistled a minor law violation. A bound group of players from each team (the forward pack) form a “tunnel” with the opposition. The offensive team’s Scrumhalf puts the ball into the tunnel by rolling it in where the Hooker tries to drag the ball back (hook it) with his foot to his teammates, while and each team pushes forward to try and gain an advantage.  The ball works its way back through the forwards and then the Scrumhalf then retrieves the ball and generally passes it to the backline.

  3. Penalty Play: After a major violation called by the referee a team can be awarded a penalty kick.  The offending team must retreat 10 meters.  The awarded team can quickly tap the ball through the mark set by the referee and run it, or they can kick the ball directly out and be awarded the line-out where the ball crosses the line (sideline).

TACKLES, RUCKS AND MAULS - Players carrying the ball may be stopped by being tackled by the opposing team. Players are tackled around the waist and legs, in general. Once a player is tackled, however, play does not stop as it does in football.  A player who is tackled to the ground must make the ball available immediately so that play can continue. Supporting players from both teams converge over the ball on the ground, binding with each other and attempt to push the opposing players backwards in a manner similar to a scrum. This situation is known as a ruck. The ball may not be picked up by any player, until the ball emerges out of the back of the ruck. A team that can retain possession after the tackle and the ensuing ruck has a huge advantage. A maul is formed with a similar gathering of players, except the player in possession of the ball is simply held up, and not tackled. The maul ends when the ball emerges.

OFFSIDE - One of the more challenging aspects about rugby for a first time rugby observer is the offside law. Similar to soccer, the offside line is continually moving up and down the pitch. In most instances, the ball creates the offside line and players are not permitted to participate in play if they are on the opposing team’s side of the ball. 

ADVANTAGE - After an offense occurs, if the referee thinks the non-offending team might benefit by “playing on” they may play advantage. How much territory or opportunity is needed before advantage is gained depends on the violation.

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Indian Rancheria’s (Reservations) of Mendocino County


On April 22, 1850, the state legislature passed “An act for the Government and Protection of Indians” into law, providing indenture or apprenticeship of California Indians. This new law led to widespread kidnapping of Indian children. A new reservation was clearly essential. Not that other solutions hadn’t been tried; in his inaugural address to the legislature, California’s first governor called for a “war of extinction” against the Indians, and said their complete destruction was “the inevitable destiny of the race.” In that same year of 1850, California budgeted over a million dollars to reimburse Indian-hating whites who wanted to organize “private military forays.” In 1858, there were an estimated 10,000 Indians in the state. About 3,200 consented to live under the white man’s direction. The rest tried to continue their way of life. But the new white settlers built fences, and ran their cattle on areas where Indians hunted. When hunting was not possible, the Indians would kill some of the cattle for food. This brought great anger from the settlers and ranchers which would raid Indian villages, killing men, women and children. Any Indian even suspected of taking there cattle was killed. In 1860, the California Legislature created a Joint Special Committee on what was known as the Mendocino War to investigate incidents of Indian stealing and killing of the settler’s stock and alleged atrocities committed by the white settlers against the Indians. The Joint Special Committee traveled throughout Mendocino County taking depositions and testimony of prominent settlers in the region. Here is a link for more of the story of Mendocino War.

The Indian Reorganizaton Act of June 18, 1934, sometimes known as the Indian New Deal, was United States federal legislation that secured certain rights to Native Americans, including Alaskan Natives. The Act also restored to Indians the management of their assets (being mainly land) and included provisions intended to create a sound economic foundation for the inhabitants of Indian reservations.

At the time the Act passed, it was the United States policy to eliminate Indian reservations, dividing their territory and distributing it to individual Indians to own like any other person, in a process called “allotment”. Before allotment, reservation territory was not owned in the usual western sense, but was reserved for the benefit of the entire Indian tribes, with its benefits apportioned to tribe members according to tribal law and custom. Generally, Indians held the land in a communal fashion. It was not possible for any non-Indian to own land which limited the value of the process of allotment which started with the General Allotment Act of 1887 and by 1934, two thirds of Indian land was converted to traditional private ownership and most of that had been sold by its Indian allotee. The Indians who sold their land often did not get much value for it which left Indians as a class very poor.

The Act slowed the practice of allotting communal tribe lands to individual tribal members. It did not restore to Indians land that had already be given to individuals, but much land at the time was still unallotted or was allotted to an individual but still held in trust for that individual by the United States government. Because the Act did disturb existing private ownership of Indian reservation lands, it left reservations a checkerboard of tribal and free land, which remains the case today. 

In 1954, the United States Department of the interior began implementing the termination and relocation phases of the Act, which had been added by Congress and represented the continuing interest by some of having American Indians assimilate to the majority society. Among other effect, determination resulted in the legal dismantling of 61 tribal nations within the United States and ending their recognized relationships with the federal government. This also ended eligibility of the tribal nations and their members for various govenment programs to assist American Indians.

The California Rancheria Termination Act was passed in 1958. The Act called for the distribution of all 41 rancheria communal lands and assets to individual tribe members. It called for a plan “for distributing to individual Indians the assets of the reservation or Rancheria, including the assigned and the unassigned lands, or for selling such assets and distributing the proceeds of sale, or conveying such assets to a corporation or other legal entity organized or designed by the group, or for conveying such assets to the group, as tenants in common.” Before the land could be distributed, the act called for a government survey of land on the rancheria. The government was required to improve or construct all roads serving the rancheria, to install or rehabilitate irrigation, sanitation, and domestic water systems, and to exchange land held in trust for the rancheria. All Indians who received a portion of the assets were ineligible to receive any more federal services rendered to them based on their status as Indians.

In 1957–58, a State Senate Interim Committee investigation revealed that little had been done to prepare Indian reserves for termination. In 1958, the Rancheria Termination Act was enacted. In 1964, an amendment to the California Rancheria Termination Act was enacted, terminating additional rancheria lands.

On July 8, 1970, President Richard Nixon’s special message on Indian affairs “said Forced termination is wrong, in my judgment, for a number of reasons. First, the premises on which it rests are wrong…. The second reason for rejecting forced termination is that the practical results have been clearly harmful in the few instances in which termination actually has been tried…. The third argument I would make against forced termination concerns the effect it has had upon the overwhelming majority of tribes which still enjoy a special relationship with the Federal government…. The recommendations of this administration represent an historic step forward in Indian policy. We are proposing to break sharply with past approaches to Indian problems”.

Tillie Hardwick vs. The United States. In 1979 the Tillie Hardwick vs. The United States, was a class action suit that was decided in favor of the Native American tribes to regain federal recognition and restore their original reservation to trust status. 

What is the Tillie Hardwick Settlement About? (Notes on Indian Law) References from an excerpt of  A lawyer’s legal research blog

On July 10, 1979, distributees from thirty-four (34) Rancherias terminated under the CRA brought a class action lawsuit in the Northern District of California against the United States and various government officials.  The Hardwick plaintiffs asserted that the United States violated the Rancheria Act in its effort to terminate federal supervision of the tribes.

Specifically, they claimed that the United States failed to inform the distributees properly of the legal consequences of termination, including the fact that the distributees’ lands would be subject to state and local taxation and regulation, and the fact that the distributees no longer would have access to federal progras and protections.   The class was certified to proceed to trial; however, it settled before that could happen.  The settlement was finalized on December 22, 1983.

The settlement divided the terminated Rancherias into three (3) sub-classes.  The first sub-class contain seventeen (17) Rancherias that were restored to federally recognized status: (1) Big Valley; (2) Blue Lake; (3) Buena Vista; (4) Chicken Ranch; (5) Cloverdale; (6) Elk Valley; (7) Greenville; (8) Mooretown; (9) North Fork; (10) Picayune; (11) Pinoleville; (12) Potter Valley; (13) Quartz Valley; (14) Redding; (15) Redwood Valley; (16) Rohnerville; (17) Smith River.

The second sub-class included twelve (12) Rancherias whose claims were dismissed without prejudice: (1) Graton; (2) Scotts Valley; (3) Guideville; (4) Strawberry Valley; (5) Cache Creek; (6) Paskenta; (7) Ruffeys; (8) Mark West; (9) Wilton; (10) El Dorado; (11) Chico; (12) Mission Creek.  They were dismissed because no class member from these Rancherias owned any property within the original Rancheria boundaries.  The property was either sold to non-Indians when the Rancheria was terminated and the proceeds of these sales distributed to Rancheria members in lieu of deeds to individual parcels of property or all of the property originally distributed was subsequently sold to non-Indians. In either case the federal defendants are unwilling to re-assume responsibility for any of these Rancherias without a final judicial determination of their obligation to do so.

The third subclass consists of a number of individuals, some of whom were members of Rancherias included in the second subclass, whose claims were dismissed with prejudice because of the res judicata effect of prior lawsuits.  (Res judicata is a legal term, also known as claim preclusion, which refers to a case in which there has been a final judgment and is no longer subject to appeal; and the legal doctrine meant to bar (or preclude) continued litigation of such cases between the same parties).

The date now is January 2014, and 160 years later, when the Mendocino War occurred, here is the updates on what is now happening with the Native Indians in Mendocino county. There is currently a total of 10 Indian Rancheria’s (reservations) in Mendocino county, which 6 of the Rancherias now have control of gaming casinos.

Coyote Valley Tribe was originally located a few miles to the southeast, at the Coyote Valley Rancheria which was flooded by the construction of the Coyote Dam, which created the recreation Lake Mendocino. Now the Coyote Valley Reservation is 70 acres located in Redwood Valley and is home to about 170 members of the Coyote Tribe of the Native American Pomo people who descend from the Shodakai Pomo. They were formerly known as the Coyote Valley Band of Pomo Indians of California. They currently operate the Coyote Valley Casino located at 7751 North State Street, Redwood Valley, CA. 95470

Guidivelle Rancheria: During the Indian termination policy, the federal government unilaterally terminated the status of the Guidiville Rancheria in 1958 and they lost their lands and were sold to private owners. But in 1987, the tribe successfully sued the United States Government for wrongful termination and in 1991 the lawsuit was settled so the tribe could reorganize. So in 1992 The Pomo tribe which made up the Guidiville Rancheria now have a 44 acre parcel of land, located 2 miles to the east of Ukiah, California.

Hopland Rancheria is a federally recognized tribe of Pomo people which was established in 1907, 3 miles east of the town of Hopland. The Hopland Rancheria consist of 40 acres and has approximately 291 tribal members that live in the area and about 45 live on the reservation. The tribe owns and operate the Hopland Sho-Ka-Wah Casino, located east of Hopland. The Hopland Band of Pomo Indians has a tribal education program EPA office, health department, utility department, police department, court system and an economic development corporation.

Manchester-Point Arena Rancheria is situated near the towns of Manchester and Point Arena. The reservation is 364 acres and the population of the tribe is estimated at 873. The Manchester-Point Arena Pomos formed their current governmental system under the Indian Reorganization Act of 1935, and their constitution was ratified on March 11, 1936. The tribe currently operates the Garcia River Casino.

The Pinoleville Rancheria was originally terminated by the United States Government but it was restored in the 1980′s. The primary parcel of land is 99 acres and approximately 70 tribal members reside there. The Pinoleville Band of Pomo Indians lived in northern Ukiah Valley, but their ancestral land were overrun by non-native settlers like many that lived here in Mendocino county in the mid 19th century. Their reservation was established in 1911 by the United States  Federal Government, but was terminated in 1966 under the California Rancheria Act. Because of this action the tribe quickly lost 50% of their land. But in 1979 a class action suit was decided in favor of the tribe. The Pinoleville Pomo Indians were able to regain federal recognition and restore their original reservation to trust status. The tribe now conducts business from Ukiah, California.

The Potter Valley Tribe was previously known as the Little River Band of Pomo Indians and Potter Valley Rancheria of Pomo Indians of California. Now the Potter Valley Tribe’s reservation is now the Potter Valley Rancheria, which consists of 10 acres and has 138 tribal members that live on the Rancheria and a total of 200 members make up the tribe. The Rancheria is located in the western slope of Potter Valley, just south of Centerville. In the early 20th century, the Rancheria was a village of 11 houses with about 50 residents. They came from all villages all over the Potter Valley, including the Yukian Huchnom band. The Methodist Episcopal Church maintained a school for the reservation. The tribe conducts business from Ukiah.

The Sherwood Valley Rancheria, located near Willits, in Mendocino county on Highway 101. It comprises a total of 356 acres and the lands on the reservation are called the old and new Rancheria. The historical community was called Kula Kai Pomo, and they traditionally lived along the upper course of the Eel River. Russians were the first non_Indians with whom they sustained contact. After the Russians left, they were replaced by increasing numbers of European-Americans in the mid 19th century  and they quickly outnumbered the Indians and wreaked havoc on their communities. Today the Sherwood Valley Rancheria has over 450 enrolled members with 179 of them living on the reservation. The tribe owns Sherwood Valley Rancheria Casino, in Willits on land purchased by the tribe in 1987.

The Redwood Valley Rancheria spans 177 acres on the northeastern side of the Russian River Valley. The terrain is forested and mountainous with some rivers and streams. With an average of 35 inches of rainfall per year, the area is in a mild and transitional climate between coastal and interior valleys. The reservation land was purchased by the United States government on July 19, 1909, but the rancheria was terminated on August 1, 1961, according to the California Act of 1958. However, the rancheria was reinstituted in 1983, and since then the tribe has formed a tribal government, acquired a land-base, and began an economic-development program. On June 20, 1987, The Redwood Valley of Pomo Indians was formed with a constitution and bylaws, according to the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934. The tribe now governs the Redwood Valley Rancheria by a General Council, who elects a 7 member Tribal Council.

The Cahto Rancheria is also known as the Laytonville Rancheria. The rancheria is 264 acres large, and located 3 miles west of Laytonville, in Mendocino county. It was founded in 1906. The reservation’s population is about 188. Cahto is a Northern word, meaning “people of the lake”. The Cahto Indian Tribe is run by a democratically-elected tribal council. The tribe operates its own housing authority, tribal police, and EPA office. Economic development comes from the tribe’s Red Fox Casino, located in Laytonville. In the early 18th century, the Cahto lived in approximately 50 village sites, occupying Cahto Valley and Long Valley, and in general the country south of Blue Rock and between the headwaters of the two main branches of the Eel River. This region comprises rolling hills and Oak savannas and is veined with streams, most which are almost dry during the dry summers but are torrential during the rainy winters.

Round Valley Indian Tribes of the Round Valley Reservation consists of the Covelo Indian Community which is an accumulation of small tribes; the Yuki, who were the original inhabitants of Round Valley, Concow, Little Lake and other Pomo, Nomlaki, Cahto, Wailaki, and Pit River peoples. They were forced onto the land formerly occupied by the Yuki tribe. The Round Valley Indian Reservation began in 1856 as the Nome Cult Farm. Indians came to Round Valley as they did to other reservations, by force. From years of intermarriage, a common lifestyle, and a shared land base, a unified community emerged. The Round Valley Indian Tribes, their heritage is a rich combination of different cultures with a common reservation experience and history. The Round Valley Tribal Council in 2007 opened The Hidden Oaks Casino which brings much needed employment to the citizens of the Round Valley Indian Tribes and neighboring town of Covelo. Since its inception, the Hidden Oaks Casino has contributed to youth programs, social services, education needs and more for the Round Valley community.

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