Because the Pomo Indians lived in a variety of environments, there was a large variety of food available to them. The communities living inland made journeys to the coast for sea food, and the coastal communities make journeys inland to gather foods not found in their local environment. The Pomo Indians ate nuts from acorns, chestnuts, buckeyes, pepperwood, and conifer trees. They also ate wild grapes and berries. “Almost all species of mammals, birds, fishes, etc. were utilized, chiefly as sources of food.” The hunting of game was done using a variety of tools. They used snare, nets, spears, clubs, Bola (used in taking geese), sling and clay balls, and the bow and arrow. They used a V-shaped fence for corralling deer, and they would smoke out, or drown out ground squirrel out of their burrow.
Land: The Pomo Indians did have property lines and personal areas. The entire community usually owned individual trees. Good fishing spots were another community owned area. If other communities wanted to fish these ares, all they had to do was ask. “If a boundary had to be marked, they simply tied a girdle of leaves around the trees along the line, at intervals of about a mile.” Boundaries where agreed upon by community leaders in elaborate ceremonies. The Pomo were very peaceful, only when property rights were disregarded did village unites go to war. This was a last resort and many warnings were given before force utilized. The Pomo’s wealth came from fifty miles of lakeshore, and over one million acres of land. From this land they mined, traded, and sold Megnasite, or Indian gold. Population: Population: In 1770 there were about 8,000 Pomo people, in 1851 population was estimated between 3500 and 5000, and in 1880 estimated at 1450. The 1910 Census reported 777 Pomo, but that is probably low. The anthropologist Alfred L. Kroeber estimated 1,200 in the same year. According to the 1930 census there were 1,143. In 1990, the census showed 4900. Today: The Pomo only have a mere fifty acres of tribal land. The decline was caused by a few factors; the treaties signed were never accepted by the state of California, this when the gold rush hit they sold a lot of the Pomo Indians land to anyone willing to buy. Second, was a terrible misrepresentation of the Pomo Indians in court by the BIA (Bureau of Indian Affairs). This caused a loss of 80,000 acres of land, including the island tribal ceremonial grounds. There are seventy known tribes within the Pomo group.